The COVID-19 pandemic, remittances and financial inclusion in the Philippines

Eiji Yamada, Satoshi Shimizutani, Enerelt Murakami



 Recent literature has revealed that financial inclusion enhances economic opportunities and security in developing countries. Moreover, a greater inflow of remittances can promote inclusiveness. In this paper, we explore the potential impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak on financial inclusion by focusing on its detrimental effect on remittance flows to developing countries. Using a household-level dataset collected in rural regions of the Philippines prior to the outbreak, we confirm that remittances are associated with financial inclusion, particularly for women. We discuss the potential impacts of the pandemic on financial inclusion through the change in the flow of remittances. We show that a substantial decline in remittances caused by the COVID-19 crisis may have an adverse effect on financial inclusion in the Philippines. 

JEL classification: F22. F24, F36, G21, O16


financial inclusion; SDGs; COVID-19, remittance, migration, Philippines

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